There have been many examples in sagas - both Icelandic and Norse, telling of the transactional nature of the culture in Old Norse/Viking times between Kings and their subjects.
Kennings are metaphoric phrases used in place of nouns - the phrase "Ring-giver" was frequently used in place of the word "King".
In one of the earliest published documents, Beowulf, we are introduced to Scyld who was known as "þæt wæs gód cyning -- A Good King" and his son Beow who are referred to as "léofne þéoden, béaga bryttan (beloved prince, ring giver).
Beowulf receives largess for his service which probably included arm rings and finger rings.
This year, I've been learning all the things in regards to melting glass, and, I got somewhat bored with glass beads. I wanted to try my hand with other interesting glass-based things, just to see how far I could push the envelope. Rings are something that were challenging, but also documentable in various cultures. I have based these glass finger rings on several extant examples from the museum in Jorvik, as well as a piece found in Visby, Sweden.
Frequently, archaeologists will find metal wire-worked finger rings, and also plenty of beads and epic amounts of glass shards. Intact glass finger rings are not as commonly found, and I think the reason for this is that they are more fragile and less structurally sound than a glass bead (Bigger hole has less solid stuff in it to support itself as compared to a bead which has a smaller hole). Broke your ring? Let's re-melt it into something else!
I am placing this into the "Science" category, as while the art is beautiful and lovely, the creation of it was a hypothesis, test, failure and if the failure was bad enough, painful. (Drop it on your foot and it hurts, it must be science!) ETA: Actually, this is functional arts.. but am still leaving "Science" in there, because a lot of scientific procedures went into the creation of these rings.
For this project, I used somewhat modern materials - Namely, a duel-fuel torch, purchased glass rods, and a metal rod with bead-release on it.
Had I used a 100% technique found within the time period, I would have had a clay furnace, fueled with charcoal with a bellow to make the flame hotter, and glass that would have been melted and wound around a metal rod, dipped in clay and then released when cool.
The technique is the same, I am simply using cleaner fuel and more refined glass.
The first time I attempted this, I used a steel-ring guage and attempted to melt glass around it - unfortunately, the free-shaping of glass did not turn out so well and became melted globs of hot mess.
I then modified my tools by purchasing some lighter-weight ring mandrels and covering them with bead-release and letting them dry. I found that instantly trying to dry the release (any release) in the flame resulted in the release flaking off, and the glass sticking to the metal and again, becoming a disaster.
In order for successful rings, I had to heat the mandrel up to a glowing heat, before even thinking about melting my glass in the flame to place upon the mandrel. If I didn't, the shock between the slightly cooler mandrel and the molten glass would create a slight shock and the end result would be cracked glass - something one does NOT want on their finger to wear.
Tweddle, Dominik - Jorvik Viking Centre, Glass - https://www.jorvikvikingcentre.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Glass.p…
Museum Historika - http://mis.historiska.se/mis/sok/bild.asp?uid=305020
Seamus Heaney, ed. and trans., Beowulf (Bilingual Edition), London: Faber & Faber, 2011.